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Endnotes

Find below a digital form of the endnotes at the end of the book, organized by chapters.

Chapter 1: Burn It All Down

  1. Philip Levine, “M. Degas Teaches Art and Science at Durfee Intermediate School, Detroit 1942,” What Work Is: Poems (New York; Alfred A. Knopf, 1991), 38.
  2. A little reminder as to how breathtaking our technological capacities have become: In 1949, my grandfather took a business trip to North Africa. After a month, he wrote my grandmother a letter asking her to meet him in Paris on a specific date. She left their home in San Fran- cisco and arrived on that date, excited to see him. Yet he never showed. He didn’t come the next day, either. Or the day after that. She waitedand waited. She couldn’t call him, because there were no mobile phones in those days, and even landlines in North Africa were scarce. A week later, he finally showed up. I once asked her if she was anxious; I would have assumed something terrible had happened. “No,” she said, “in those days you would just wait.” Such waiting is inconceivable now, thanks to radical connectivity.
  3. Flash Mobs Threaten Retail Industry
  4. A number of thinkers and writers have begun to explore the implications of our technology, perhaps most notably Sherry Turkle, Jaron Lanier, and Clay Shirky, all of whom have different points of view on the subject.
  5. JaronLanier,“The Hazards of Nerd Supremacy: The Case of WikiLeaks,” The Atlantic, 20 Dec. 2010.
  6. In Which I Fix My Girlfriends’ Parents Wifi and Am Hailed as a Conquering Hero
  7. With apologies to Benjamin Nugent, author of American Nerd: The Story of My People.
  8. In 1965, the Intel cofounder Gordon Moore suggested that every eigh- teen months, computer chips would become twice as fast, half as expensive, and half as big. It turned out to take more time: Every twenty-four months computer chips shrink to half their size while getting twice as fast and twice as cheap.
  9. Douglas Engelbart
  10. Ibid.
  11. In May 1970, a group of students at the University of Illinois organized aday of action to protest the construction on campus of a supercomputer called the ILLIAC IV, primarily because it was funded by the Defense Department. They called their protest Smash ILLIAC IV and included a cartoon of the mainframe computer with screens tracking things like a “kill-die factor” and a gaping mouth labeled “Feed $$$$$$ here!”
  12. Stewart Brand is a particularly interesting figure because he bridged these two branches of nerd culture. He was the camera operator at Engelbart’s “Mother of All Demos,” but he was also one of the Merry Pranksters running around on Ken Kesey’s bus. The quotation is taken from his essay “We Owe It All to the Hippies,” Time, 1 Mar. 1995.
  13. People’s Computer Company, Newsletter #1
  14. Homebrew and how the Apple Came to Be
  15. Homebrew Computer Club, Newsletter #2
  16. Apple I Computer ad
  17. John Markoff, What the Dormouse Said: How the Sixties CountercultureShaped the Personal Computer Industry (New York: Penguin, 1996).
  18. The three geniuses who made 1984 less like 1984
  19. Apple I Computer ad
  20. Adelia Cellini, “The Story Behind Apple’s ‘1984’ TV Commercial: BigBrother at 20.” MacWorld 21, no. 1 (2004): 18.
  21. An Internet pioneer ponders the next revolution
  22. Noam Chomsky and others have argued that the United States has along-standing tradition of using the Pentagon as a cover for massive government investment in strategically important industries. Calling something a defense expenditure makes it much more less vulnerable to political attack.
  23. Mitch Kapor may not be a household name—but he should be. Many of you may remember Mitch alongside Steve Jobs and Bill Gates as one of the legends of the personal computer. He founded Lotus Development Corporation, an early software company, and pioneered applications for spreadsheets and graphics. He has gone on to have a leading role in a number of other important organizations, including as a cofounder of the Electronic Frontier Foundation.
  24. A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace
  25. How the Web was won
  26. Having two presidential candidates for 310 million people is wildly undemocratic. At this point, you can’t have a democratic (small d) conversation about the presidency, but you can help elect him (and it is generally a him) in a more democratic way than before.
  27. Doug Casey, “End of the Nation-State,” LewRockwell.com, 4 Jun 2012.
  28. Liza Hopkins, “Citzenship and Global Broadcasting: Constructing Na- tional, Transnational and Post-national Identities,” Continuum: Journal of Media and Cultural Studies 23, no. 1 (2009).
  29. Vivek Kundra, Uncle Sam’s first CIO

Chapter 2: Big News

  1. Jim Harrison, letter 27, Letters to Yesenin (Port Townsend, WA: Copper Canyon Press, 2007), 53.
  2. Bin Laden: Visualizing the Power of a Single Tweet
  3. GONE: http://twitter.com/#!/ReallyVirtual/status/64780730286358528.
  4. Just Two in Five Americans Read Newspaper Daily; see also How People Learn about their Local Community
  5. Sources Go Direct
  6. Alex S. Jones, Losing the News (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009).
  7. Confidence Game
  8. In changing news landscape, even television is vulnerable
  9. Five common cliches (done wrong)
  10. Newspaper daze
  11. State of the blogosphere, October 2004
  12. How Big is Blogosphere?
  13. MediaNews files for Chapter 11 Bankruptcy Protection 
  14. Star Tribune bankruptcy
  15. Sun-Times Media Group goes bankrupt
  16. To reorganize debt, publisher of paper files for bankruptcy
  17. Sources Go Direct
  18. Steven Waldman: Information Needs of Communities: The Changing Media Landscape in a Broadband Age
  19. In January of 2003 former Colorado Senator Gary Hart briefly bloggedat Gary Hart News.com as part of a short-lived consideration for an-other presidential campaign. Source: Politics and the Internet timeline
  20. Iraq: why the media failed
  21. Covering the Great Recession
  22. A media failure compounds the financial failure
  23. Money Talks
  24. When did housing lending standards become so, hum, lax?
  25. Hate the house? Then renovate
  26. Cable by the numbers
  27. Old growth media, the aftermath
  28. Alex S. Jones, Losing the News (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009), 4.
  29. Media: Texas Tribune
  30. Four crowdsourcing lessons from the Guardian’s expenses-scandal experiment
  31. How investigative journalism is prospering in the age of social media
  32. Amanda Michel, “Get Off the Bus: The Future of Pro-Am Journalism,”Columbia Journalism Review, Mar.-Apr. 2009
  33. Michel, “Get Off the Bus.”
  34. Join our reporting network for opportunities to get involved
  35. 1000 true fans
  36. The (Josh) Marshall Plan
  37. Josh Marshall on the grow
  38. Ibid.
  39. About Talking Points Memo
  40. Five pillars of Wikipedia
  41. Kitzhaber, opponent of Gorge casino, gets $10000 from rival tribe
  42. Rep. Gifford shot by gunman
  43. Tracking Journalist arrests at Occupy movements around the country

Chapter 3: Big Political Parties

  1. Jack Gilbert, “Failing and Flying,” Refusing Heaven (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2005), 18.
  2. Boola Boola, e-commerce comes to the Quad
  3. Candice Nelson, Grant Park: The Democratization of Presidential Elections, 1968–2008, Washington, D.C., Brookings Institute Press, 2011. See also Peter Goldman and Tony Fuller, The Quest for the Presidency 1984 (New York: Bantam Books, 1985), 142-144; Jack W. Germond and Jules Wit- cover, Wake Us When It’s over: Presidential Politics of 1984 (New York: Macmillan, 1985), 163.
  4. Is Obama good for black people?
  5. Why Our Elites Stink
  6. How to understand the “invisible primary”
  7. The corruption of American politics: what went wrong and why
  8. Online newshour interview with historian Michael Beschloss
  9. Ted Sorensen, Kennedy: The Classic Biography (New York: HarperCollins,2009), 128.
  10. Qtd. in Christopher Matthews, Hardball: How Politics is Played—Told byOne Who Knows the Game (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1999), 155.
  11. John Aldrich, “The Invisible Primary and Its Effects on DemocraticChoice.” PS: Political Science and Politics 42, no. 1 (2009): 33–38.
  12. Online News Hour: What went wrong and why
  13. Senator by day, telemarketer by night
  14. Our Corrupt Politics: it’s not all money
  15. A theory of political parties ; see also The Republican party’s Mitt Romney problem
  16. In John Tedesco and Andrew Paul Williams, The Internet Election: Perspec-tives on the Web in Campaign 2004 (Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield, 2006).
  17. Qtd. in James Barnes, “For Now, the Joke’s on the Establishment,” NationalJournal 30 Aug. 2003.
  18. McCain, although formerly a maverick candidate, by the 2008 presi-dential campaign had come to wear the establishment mantle.
  19. Digital ad spend gap widens between Obama and Romney
  20. Can a polarized American party system be “healthy?”
  21. Ibid.
  22. Divided we stand
  23. Obama vs Boehner: who killed the debt deal?
  24. First thoughts: here we go again
  25. Page gone: http://a.nicco.org/Jb57qY r
  26. Michelle Bachmann’s Holy War
  27. Qtd. in Leap of Faith: Making of a Republican front-runner
  28. Rick Perry: Oops
  29. Hagel: Reagan wouldn’t identify with today’s GOP
  30. About ActBlue
  31. From Howard Dean to the Tea Party: the power of MeetUp
  32. How the Internet invented Howard Dean
  33. The pursuit of community
  34. Ibid.
  35. Wikipedia: Americans Elect
  36. Americans Elect
  37. Direct Democracy 2.0
  38. Technology for Transparency network
  39. Net impact
  40. Profile: Russian blogger Alexei Navalny
  41. The man Vladimir Putin fears most
  42. How one project is changing transparency in Chile
  43. Websites shine light on petty bribery worldwide
  44. Brandeis and the history of transparency
  45. Influence Explorer
  46. The Great Unalignment

Chapter 4: Big Fun

  1. Elizabeth Bishop, “I Am in Need of Music,” The Complete Poems 1927– 1979 (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1984), 214.
  2. ShayCarl’s epic journey to Youtube stardom
  3. YouTube statistics
  4. Ibid.
  5. Qtd. in Scott Kirsner, Inventing the Movies: Hollywood’s Epic Battle BetweenInnovation and the Status Quo, from Thomas Edison to Steve Jobs (Boston:CinemaTech Books), 199.
  6. At 92, a bandit to Hollywood but a hero to soldiers
  7. Assessing Napsters 10 years later
  8. Qtd. in Robert Levine, Free Ride: How Digital Parasites Are Destroying theCulture Business, and How the Culture Business Can Fight Back (New York:Doubleday, 2011) 38.
  9. According to Forrester Research via CNN
  10. Copyright protection: the case of Napster
  11. Bye Bye, Miss American Pie?
  12. Qtd. in Levine, Free Ride, 40.
  13. Qtd. in Josh Tyrangiel, “Radiohead Says: Pay What You Want,” Time 1Oct. 2007. Retrieved 16 Oct. 2007.
  14. Amazon now has its own self-publishing, print-on-demand service that competes with LuLu.
  15. The book is available for purchase at Bulldozing the Way.
  16. A statement from Louis CK
  17. Louis CK: Purchase
  18. Aziz Ansari dangerously delicious stand-up online
  19. The New Hustle: artists in the digital age
  20. Kickstarter statistics are constantly updated here.
  21. 10 000 successful Kickstarter projects
  22. At Sundance, Kickstarter resembled a movie studio, but without the ego
  23. Mad Men has its moment
  24. Levine, Free Ride, 141.
  25. I paid $4 million for this?
  26. MLB Advanced Media’s Bob Bowman is playing digital hardball. And he’s winning.
  27. When Comcast acquired NBC Universal, it estimated the value of thebroadcast television side of NBC at $0. Cable fees are threatened as more and more Americans “cut the cord,” reducing their cable fees in favor of online alternatives. DVD sales have collapsed, down 25% since their peak in 2004. Box office revenues are at their lowest rate in history as Americans stop going out to the movies, thanks to better home theater technology.
  28. Rogert Ebert: I’ll tell you why movie revenue is dropping
  29. Has Hollywood lost its way?
  30. David Downs, “Five Kickstarter Projects Get Slammed with Success,” Wired 20, no. 8 (2012): 25.
  31. U of M professor delivers the science of Spiderman
  32. Eli Pariser, The Filter Bubble (New York: Penguin Press, 2011).
  33. Fred Hapgood, “The Media Lab at 10,” Wired, March 2011.
  34. Two guys made a website, and this is what they got
  35. YouTube press statistics
  36. It is worth noting that although streaming services like Spotify pro-vide an alternative to iTunes, some recent data suggests that these streaming services represent an even worse financial arrangement for musicians than iTunes. The royalties provided by streaming services are minuscule, about one tenth of one percent per stream. See also Spotify: good for music lovers, bad for musicians?
  37. YouTube money statistics: partner ad income in 2011
  38. The Amazon effect
  39. Apple bans cartoon boobs in Joyce’s Ulysses
  40. The iPad and the Kindle: publish or perish
  41. Amazon pulls McMillan books over price disagreement
  42. Do you want the good news first?
  43. Qtd. in At media companies, a nation of serfs

Chapter 5: Big Government

  1. Eamon Grennan, “Full Moon,” Still Life with Waterfall (Minneapolis, MN: Graywolf Press, 2002), 54.
  2. Open Government 2.0: Lessons Learned
  3. Department of Defense base structure report, 2007; Chalmers John- son, The Sorrows of Empire: Militarism, Secrecy, and the End of the Republic (New York: Metropolitan Books, 2004), 4.
  4. RI House to vote on state budget plan; At Dod, 6 IT projects, $8 billion over budget
  5. Joshua Holland, The Fifteen Biggest Lies about the Economy: And Everything Else the Right Doesn’t Want You to Know about Taxes, Jobs, and Corporate America (Hoboken: John Wiley, 2010), 105.
  6. Congress hits a new low in approval
  7. Frustration index: still hot in the kitchen
  8. Fewer are angry at the government, but discontent remains high
  9. Charlene Li and Josh Bernoff, The Groundswell, (Cambridge: Harvard Business Press, 2008).
  10. Wuala: buy with bitcoin
  11. Bitcoin P2P currency: the most dangerous project we’ve ever seen
  12. London riots: how BlackBerry played a key role
  13. Flash mob violence raises heavy questions
  14. Flash mobs versus law and order
  15. China’s cyberposse
  16. The secret online weapon stores that will sell anyone anything
  17. “Businesses and others lobbying Congress reported spending $1.4 bil-lion in 1998, a figure that more than doubled to $3.5 billion in 2009.” PAGE LOST: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2011/02/02 /AR2011020205406.html
  18. Once a trendsetter, Sandy Springs tweaks the model
  19. A Georgia town takes the people’s business private
  20. Sandy Spring outsources (almost) everything
  21. Bill Bishop, The Big Sort: Why the Clustering of Like-Minded America Is Tear- ing Us Apart (Boston: Mariner Books, 2009), 199.
  22. “Hazards of Prophecy: The Failure of Imagination,” in Profiles of the Future: An Enquiry into the Limits of the Possible (1962, rev. 1973), 14, 21, 36.
  23. On September 26, 2006, Facebook opened itself to anyone over the age of thirteen with an e-mail address. Carolyn Abram, “Welcome to Facebook, Everyone.” The Facebook Blog (September 26, 2006).
  24. Tim O’Reilly, “Government As Platform,” in Open Government: Collabora- tion, Transparency, and Participation in Practice, edited by Daniel Lathrop, Laurel Ruma. O’Reilly Media; February 23, 2010.
  25. Data.gov: matching government data with rapid innovation
  26. Statistics about business size
  27. App store metrics
  28. New D.C. CTO scraps “Apps for democracy”
  29. City of Boston summary budget
  30. Thirty-thousand
  31. Tom Holland, Persian Fire: The First World Empire and the Battle for theWest (New York: Anchor, 2007), 134.
  32. A California constitutional convention
  33. The Constitutional Council – general information
  34. A cyberspace independence declaration
  35. Gary Wolf, “Why Craigslist Is Such a Mess,” Wired, August 24, 2009
  36. Ibid.
  37. United Nations Convention Against Transnational Crime and Its Protocols
  38. Paul Di Filippo, “Wikiworld,” in Fast Forward 1: Future Fiction from the Cut- ting Edge, Lou Anders, editor, Pyr, 2007.
  39. Alexis de Tocqueville, John Canfield Spencer, The Republic of the United States of America: And Its Political Institutions, Reviewed and Ex- amined, 271.
  40. Only 5 percent of registered voters in Dallas, 6 percent in Charlotte, and 7 percent in Austin turned out to vote in recent mayoral elections (FairVote – voter turnout).
  41. Thomas Jefferson supported rewriting the Constitution every 19 years
  42. Election 2012: the end of the middle of everything

Chapter 6: Big Armies

  1. Adam Zagajewski, “Try to Praise the Mutiliated World,” trans. Clare Cavanagh, Without End: New and Selected Poems (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2003), 60.
  2. Interactive 9/11 cost tally
  3. Jihadi cool: terrorist recruiters’ latest weapon
  4. Technology and terror: the new modus operandi
  5. Cleric al-Alwaki dubbed the Bin Laden of the Internet
  6. US knew of suspect’s ties to radical cleric
  7. Qtd. in Andrew Hoskins, Radicalisation and the Media: Legitimising Violence in the New Media (New York: Routledge, 2001), 56.
  8. Bin Laden was logged off, but not al Qaida
  9. The web as weapon
  10. Al Qaeda posts online recruiting adverts
  11. The real online terrorist threat
  12. Senator saves YouTube from al Qaeda
  13. YouTube community guidelines
  14. Bin Laden may have lived in Pakistan for seven years before capture
  15. What would Churchill do?
  16. How bin Laden evaded the USA: Sneakernet
  17. Terrorism post-bin Laden “dynamically” switches to smaller targets
  18. The secret online weapon stores that will sell anyone anything
  19. Iran face-off drives new naval small ship focus
  20. Millenium Challenge 2002
  21. Ready for cyberwar?
  22. The wrong war: applying Cold War metaphors to the cyberwar is wrong
  23. Cyber intruder sparks massive federal response
  24. Seymour Hersh, “The Online Threat: Should We Be Worried about a Cyber War?,” The New Yorker, November 1, 2010
  25. Ibid.
  26. Richard Clarke’s Cyberwar: filed under fiction
  27. Lessons from the bin Laden raid and cyberwar
  28. Julian Assange, “The Non Linear Effects of Leaks on Unjust Systems of Governance,” WikiLeaks 31 Dec. 2006. Archived from the original on 2 Oct. 2007.
  29. The secret life of Wikileaks’ founder Julian Assange
  30. US embassy cables culprit should be executed, says Mike Huckabee
  31. Sarah Palin: hunt Wikileaks founder like al Qaeda and Taliban leaders
  32. Julian Assange like a high-tech terrorist, says Joe Biden
  33. Pentagon whistleblower Daniel Ellsberg: Julian Assange is not a terrorist
  34. Micah L. Sifry and Andrew Rasiej, WikiLeaks and the Age of Transparency(Berkeley: Counterpoint, 2011), 14.
  35. Samantha Power: transparency has gone global
  36. Wikileaks Tunisia cables
  37. Bouazizi: the man who set himself and Tunisia on fire
  38. Rebecca MacKinnon, Consent of the Networked (Philadelphia: Basic Books, 2012), 57.
  39. Evgeny Morozov, The Net Delusion: The Dark Side of Internet Freedom by (New York: PublicAffairs, 2011), 53.
  40. Afghanistan’s amazing DIY Internet
  41. To this trinity, Morozov adds a fourth hallmark, provided to a large ex- tent by the technologies of radical connectivity: entertainment. In a chapter titled, “Orwell’s Favorite Lolcat” he writes, “Another Sakharov seems inconceivable in today’s Russia, and in the unlikely event he does appear, he would probably enjoy far less influence on Russian national discourse than Artemy Lebedev, Russia’s most popular blogger, who uses his blog to run weekly photo competitions to find a woman with the most beautiful breasts (the subject of breasts, one must note, is far more popular in the Russian blogosphere than that of democracy). . . . But efficiency and comfort—which the Internet provides—are not nec- essarily the best conditions for fomenting dissent among the educated classes. . . . If anything, the Internet makes it harder, not easier to get people to care, if only because the alternatives to political action are so much more pleasant and risk-free.” The days of the master switch as a tactic might be numbered, but authoritarian regimes still have plenty of options: co-opt online communications with propaganda, distract through entertainment, or use social networking for surveillance.
  42. Anonymous takes down darknet child pornography website
  43. 4chan’s chaos theory
  44. Interview by Kim Masters and Renée Montagne, “Anonymous Wages Attack on Scientologists: The Fight Started When the Scientologists Tried to Get a Video of Tom Cruise off the Internet,” Morning Edition:Digital Culture 7 Feb. 2008, National Public Radio.
  45. PBS hacked in retribution for Frontline Wikileaks episode
  46. Anonymous retreats from Mexico drug cartel confrontation
  47. Quinn Norton, a frequent Wired contributor on Anonymous, calls the group “a culture, one with its own distinctive iconography . . . its ownself-referential memes, its own coarse sense of humor. And as Anony- mous campaigns have spread around the world, so too has its culture, bringing its peculiar brand of cyber-rebellion to tech-savvy activists in Eastern Europe, Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East. Like a plastic Fawkes mask, Anonymous is an identity that anyone can put on, whenever they want to join up with the invisible online horde” (Anonymous 101: Introduction to the Lulz)

Chapter 7: Big Minds

  1. William Butler Yeats, “Lapis Lazuli,” The Collected Poems of W. B. Yeats (New York: Scribner, 1996), 294.
  2. The disadvantages of an elite education
  3. Derek Bok, Our Underachieving Colleges: A Candid Look at How Much Stu- dents Learn and Why They Should Be Learning More (Princeton: PrincetonUP, 2008), 34.
  4. Harry Lewis, Excellence Without a Soul: How a Great University Forgot Edu-cation (New York: PublicAffairs, 2006), 8.
  5. A Harvard education isn’t as advertised
  6. How higher education cuts undermine the future middle class
  7. The email rumor mill is run by conservatives
  8. Bachelor’s degree: has it lost its edge and value?
  9. Why did 17 million students go to college?
  10. Is college worth it?
  11. Ibid
  12. Thiel awards 24 under-20 fellowships
  13. Peter Thiel: we’re in a bubble and it’s not the internet. It’s higher education.
  14. MIT October 2011 newsletter
  15. Khan Academy triples unique users to 3.5 million
  16. Udacity’s model
  17. The great unbundling: newspapers and the net
  18. The great unbundling of the university
  19. For profit higher education
  20. Apollo fourth quarter profits top analysts’ predictions
  21. Evaluating student outcomes at for-profit schools
  22. Why the Internet isn’t going to end college as we know it
  23. PAGE LOST: http://toolserver.org/~daniel/WikiSense/Contributors.php?wikilang=en&wikifam=.wikipedia.org&grouped=on&page=Abraham_Lincoln
  24. A vast wasteland, five decades later
  25. Cracking open the scientific process
  26. Publication bias may permanently damage medical research
  27. Useful chem
  28. David Weinberger, Too Big to Know: Rethinking Knowledge Now That the Facts Aren’t the Facts, Experts Are Everywhere, and the Smartest Person in the Room Is the Room (New York: Basic Books, 2011), 139.
  29. Ibid., 140.
  30. Discover new galaxies!
  31. The value of openness in scientific problem solving
  32. The secrets of the great presidents
  33. The doctor as the second opinion and the Internet as the first
  34. The doctor will see you – if you’re quick
  35. Cultural cognition of scientific consensus
  36. Weinberger is well-known for coauthoring the Cluetrain Manifesto (1999), a list of ninety-five theses that hammered away against the orthodoxy of the corporate establishment of the 1990s, especially in marketing and advertising. The first thesis states, “Markets are con- versations” and is an explicit affront to traditional marketing and ad-vertising that operate in a one-way “broadcast” mode.
  37. What the Internet means for how we think about the world
  38. Weinberger, Too Big to Know, 117.
  39. “Smears 2.0,” Los Angeles Times, 3 Dec. 2007, http://a.nicco.org/tcXn9b.
  40. “Clinton Campaign Volunteer Out Over False Obama Rumors,” Wash-ington Post, 5 Dec. 2007, http://a.nicco.org/sBHCBm.
  41. “N.Y. Mayor Urges Jewish Voters to Denounce Obama Muslim Rumors,”Associated Press, 2 June 2008, http://a.nicco.org/uxPYNB.
  42. The email rumor mill is run by conservatives
  43. Michael Grant, History of Rome (New York: Charles Scribner, 1978),264.
  44. Office of Highway Policy Information, Table HM-20: Public Road Length,2010 report (Federal Highway Administration, Dec. 2011).
  45. On Darwin’s birthday, only 4 in 10 believe in evolution
  46. Colin Wells, Sailing from Byzantium: How a Lost Empire Shaped the World (New York: Bantam Dell, 2006), xxviii.
  47. Improvisations
  48. T. S. Eliot, “Traditional and Individual Talent,” in Modernism: An Anthol- ogy of Sources and Documents, Vassiliki Kolocotroni, Jane Goldman, Olga Taxidou, eds. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999), 369.

Chapter 8: Big Companies

  1. Philip Levin, “What Work Is,” What Work Is: Poems (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1991), 18.
  2. Job growth in US driven almost exclusively by startups 
  3. Bureau of Labor Statistics
  4. Individual age economics
  5. The East Asian Company: book review
  6. Individual age economics
  7. Free agent nation
  8. It’s a free agent nation, except in Washington
  9. 30 electric car companies ready to take over the road
  10. The commoditization of scale
  11. For Facebook, see Facebook’s $1 billion data center; for Google, see Google invests $890 million in data centers
  12. Dewey’s fall underscore law firms’ new reality
  13. The rise of the 1099 economy: more Americans are becoming their own bosses
  14. New mutualism: mutual support for the information age
  15. The kind of future fabbing suggests
  16. Disruptions: the 3D printer for all
  17. Tested, the photocopier that will one day make a Stradivarius
  18. Is the US in a phase change to the creative economy?
  19. Fab labs
  20. Qtd. in Imagination, innovation and the mobject
  21. The dream factory
  22. Evolutionary products mash-up
  23. Qtd. in Evolutionary products mash-up
  24. The decline of brands
  25. Brand loyalty is declining, total product experience can help
  26. Local motors rally fighter
  27. Fans flock to Firefox Flicks
  28. Usage share of web browsers
  29. The era of small and many
  30. More farms vie for the $1 billion spent at farmers’ markets
  31. Crop mob raids 66 cities nationwide
  32. US job creating solar industry continues to shine
  33. Bank transfer day: how much impact did it have?
  34. That hobby looks like a lot of work
  35. The Friday podcast: Pietra Rivoli’s T-shirt travels
  36. The era of small and many
  37. Christopher Steiner, $20 per Gallon: How the Inevitable Rise in the Price of Gasoline Will Change Our Lives for the Better (New York: Hachette Book Group, 2009), 141.
  38. Peter Maas: the violent twilight of oil looms
  39. Rachel Botsman, Roo Rogers, What’s Mine Is Yours: The Rise of Collabora-tive Consumption (New York: HarperBusiness, 2010), xx
  40. The sharing economy
  41. Rachel Botsman and Roo Rogers, introduction, What’s Mine Is Yours: TheRise of Collaborative Consumption (New York: HarperCollins, 2010), xvii.
  42. Global warming’s terrifying new math

Chapter 9: Big Opportunities

  1. Eamon Grennan, “Could This Be It?”, Poetry Magazine, August 1998.
  2. Barbara W. Tuchman, The Guns of August (New York: Presidio Press,1964), 1.
  3. Catrine Clay, King, Kaiser, Tsar: Three Royal Cousins Who Led the World toWar (Walker & Company, 2007), 95
  4. With apologies to Clay Shirky.
  5. Americans’ use of antidepressants on the rise
  6. Texting and driving worse than drinking and driving
  7. Texting while driving: how dangerous is it?
  8. In her book Sleeping with Your Smartphone (Boston: Harvard Business Review Press, 2012), the Harvard Business School professor Leslie Per- low details her stunning research into the lives of business profession- als, 70% of whom admitted to checking their smartphone (and e-mail inbox) within an hour of waking up.
  9. Empathy: college students don’t have as much as they used to, study finds
  10. Sherry Turkle, Alone Together: Why We Expect More from Technology and Less from Each Other (New York: Basic Books, 2011), 284
  11. Ori Brafman and Rod Beckstrom, The Starfish and the Spider: The Unstop-pable Power of Leaderless Organizations (New York: Penguin, 2006), 8.
  12. Apologies to Andrew Rasiej.
  13. Sorry, Dad.
  14. Rebecca MacKinnon, Consent of the Networked: The Worldwide Struggle for Internet Freedom (Philadelphia: Basic Books, 2012), 129, 164.
  15. Doc Searls, The Intention Economy: When Customers Take Charge (Cam-bridge: Harvard Business Review Press, 2012), 8
  16. 4chan’s chaos theory

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“Power is not about knowing how to use Twitter. It’s about grasping the thinking underneath the actual technology – the values, mindsets, worldviews, and arguments embedded in all those blinking gadgets and cool websites.”

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